Modest haredi girls from the haredi girl's school BEIT YAAKOV (see their blue clothing) in Jerusalem's Sacher Park (Gan Sacher). I took the picture about two months ago.
Photo: Miriam Woelke
"And these are the generations of Yitzchak Ben Avraham (the son of Avraham) - Avraham begot Yitzchak".
Rabbi Yochanan and Rabbi Elazar said:"When a person is dependent on others, the colour of his face changes like that of a KERUM".
I don't think that we are able today to find the correct answer to the question whether Christopher Columbus was Jewish. Maybe he was and maybe he wasn't. The only fact we can draw from this is the date 1492. A year of celebration for the US but a year of tragedy in Jewish history. The Expulsion of the Jews from Spain and thus new pogroms and attempts of elimination organized by the church.Some researchers have postulated that Columbus was of Iberian Jewish origins. The linguist Estelle Irizarry, in addition to arguing that Columbus was Catalan, also claims that Columbus tried to conceal Jewish heritage. In "Three Sources of Textual Evidence of Columbus, Crypto Jew," Irizarry claims that Columbus always wrote in Spanish, occasionally included Hebrew in writing, and referenced the Jewish High Holidays in his journal during the first voyage.
Simon Wisenthal postulates that Columbus was a Sephardi (Spanish Jew), careful to conceal his Judaism yet also eager to locate a place of refuge for his persecuted fellow countrymen. Wiesenthall argues that Columbus' concept of sailing west to reach the Indies was less the result of geographical theories than of his faith in certain Biblical texts—specifically the Book of Isaiah. He repeatedly cited two verses from that book: "Surely the isles shall wait for me, and the ships of Tarshish first, to bring thy sons from far, their silver and their gold with them," (60:9); and "For behold, I create new heavens and a new earth" (65:17). Wisenthal claimed that Columbus felt that his voyages had confirmed these prophecies.
Jane Francis Amler argued that Columbus was a converso (a Sephardi Jew who publicly converted to Christianity). In Spain, even some converted Jews were forced to leave Spain after much persecution; it is known that many conversos were still practicing Judaism in secret. The correlation between the Alhambra Decree, which called for the expulsion of all of the Jews from Spain and its territories and possessions by July 31, 1492, and Columbus's embarkation on his first voyage on August 3, 1492, has been offered as support for this claim.